Patrones de arquitectura de software

Software architecture patterns you should know about

In the development world, software architecture patterns play a key role in designing robust and scalable systems. These patterns are proven solutions that address recurring problems in software design, providing a structured approach to solving them.

At Yapiko we will explain what software architecture patterns are, their advantages and differences with design patterns.

What is a software architecture pattern?

A software architecture pattern is a generalised, reusable solution to a common problem in software system design. These patterns represent the best design practices that have emerged over time from the experience of practitioners in the field of software architecture. Architecture patterns provide a structured framework for designing and building systems that are flexible, maintainable and scalable.

Software architecture patterns focus on the high-level aspects of system design, such as the distribution of responsibilities, communication between components, data management and the overall system structure. These patterns are not tied to a specific programming language or technology, which makes them applicable to different contexts and projects.

Advantages of software architecture patterns

Software architecture patterns offer a number of significant benefits for developers and development teams. In the following, we will explore some of the most salient advantages:

Identify basic features of an application

Software architecture patterns help to identify the basic characteristics of an application. By applying a specific pattern, developers can better understand the needs and requirements of the system, this allows them to establish a solid basis for the design of the architecture. Patterns allow common functionality and interactions to be abstracted into reusable components, facilitating understanding and communication between team members.

Ensuring quality and efficiency

By using software architecture patterns, the quality and efficiency of the system can be improved. These patterns have beentested and improved over time, which means that they have proven to be effective solutions to specific problems. By implementing an architecture pattern, you can take advantage of the collective experience of the software development community and avoid common mistakes.

Agility

They promote agility in application development. By using a proven pattern, development teams can speed up the design and development process, as they do not need to reinvent the wheel. The templates provide clear and structured guidance to help teams make informed decisions and avoid unnecessary complexity..

Troubleshooting

They offer proven solutions to recurring problems in system design.. These patterns provide a systematic approach to solving specific challenges and offer clear guidelines on how to structure and organise the system. By applying the right patterns, developers can avoid common mistakes and solve problems effectively.

Increases productivity

Using software architecture patterns can increase the productivity of development teams. They provide proven and structured solutions that can be applied consistently across different projects. By having a library of architecture patterns, teams can reuse and adapt these solutions to their specific needs, saving time and effort in the design phase.

What is the difference between a software architecture pattern and a design pattern?

Although both share the goal of offering proven solutions to design problems, there are some key differences between them. Software architecture patterns focus on high-level issues, such as the overall structure of the system and the distribution of responsibilities, while design patterns focus on more specific problems at the level of individual components.

Design patterns are more oriented towards implementation details, providing solutions for problems related to object creation, behaviour encapsulation and interaction between classes and objects. These patterns are more specific to a particular programming language or technology.

In summary, software architecture patterns are general solutions to high-level design problems, whereas design patterns focus on more specific problems at the level of individual components and are more implementation-oriented.

What are the most common software architecture patterns?

Among the best-known software architecture patterns we can highlight the following:

Model-View-Controller (MVC)

This pattern separates the business logic into three main components: the model (in charge of the data and business logic), the view (in charge of the presentation of the user interface) and the controller (in charge of handling the interactions between the model and the view). For example, in an e-commerce system, the model would handle the products and transactions, the view would display the user interface for users to make purchases, and the controller would handle the requests and interactions between the model and the view.

Layers

In this case, the system is divided into logical layers, each with a specific responsibility. Typically, presentation, business logic and data access layers are used to separate concerns and facilitate system modularity and maintainability.

A use case for this pattern would be in an enterprise application, you can have layers of presentation, business logic and data access. The presentation layer would be responsible for displaying the user interface, the business logic layer would implement the business rules and processes, and the data access layer would be responsible for interacting with the database.

Client-Server

In this pattern, the system is divided into two parts: the client, which requests services or resources, and the server, which provides these services and resources. This architecture allows for a clear distribution of responsibilities and facilitates scalability and the handling of large volumes of users.

For example, in an e-mail application, the client would send requests for messages and the server would respond by providing the requested messages.

Microservices architecture

This architecture divides an application into a set of small, independent services, each running in its own process and communicating with each other via lightweight mechanisms such as HTTP or messaging. Microservices allow for greater flexibility, scalability and maintainability of the application.

It could be applied in ecommerce, you can have separate microservices for product management, payment processing and order management, each with its own logic and data storage.

Publisher-Subscriber

This pattern is based on asynchronous communication between components through a publish and subscribe mechanism. Components, such as a newspaper, can publish events or messages, and other components, such as readers, can subscribe to them and receive notifications when they occur.

Middleware

This pattern uses an intermediate software layer called middleware to facilitate communication and interoperability between different components of a distributed system. Middleware provides services such as transaction management, security and inter-application communication.

In a web application, middleware can be used to control user authentication and authorisation, session management or request routing.

Service-oriented architecture (SOA)

Services are self-contained, autonomous components that communicate with each other using open standards. SOA enables service reuse, interoperability and modularity of applications. It can be used in an inventory management system, where services are exposed to query and update data, allowing other systems to synchronise them.

Hexagonal Architecture

Hexagonal architecture, also known as port and adapter architecture, is a software design pattern that seeks to create scalable and flexible systems. n this architecture, the core application is at the centre, surrounded by external layers that interact with the outside world.

It is based on the idea of separating application domain concerns from technical and infrastructure details. This is achieved through the use of ports and adapters. Ports are interfaces that define the interactions between the core application and external components, such as databases, web services or user interfaces. Adapters are concrete implementations of these ports, which enable communication between the kernel and external components.

This separation of responsibilities facilitates testing, maintenance and evolution of the system, as external components can be replaced or modified without affecting the core of the application. It also promotes modularity and decoupling, which facilitates component reuse and change management over time.

 

Architecture patterns are a powerful tool for developers and can help build robust and scalable systems. By applying these patterns, development teams will improve the quality, efficiency and agility of their projects.

If you need more information, Yapiko as an expert in custom software development, we can explain how we offer the best solution to our customers.